A microcontroller is a single chip (Integrated circuit) that can perform and execute a computational task. A microcontroller has input and output ports, memory to store information and a data processing unit. Microcontrollers are programmed to receive data from their input ports, store the data in the memory and processes/compute the data in order to produce and automated output at the output ports, based on the inputs or desired application.
Microcontrollers incorporate both hardware and software to perform the desired task. Microcontrollers can also have ADCs, timers and I2C communication capabilities integrated in them.
Microcontrollers are used in numerous electronic devices, such as cellphones, washing machines and laptops.